Length of wire and resistance experiment

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The wire will be in use the hole time through out the experiment. Objectives: The objective of this experiment is to investigate the relationship and difference between resistance and resistivity. Electrons colliding withatoms in the wire cause resistance, the longer the length of the wire, the more atoms there will be. Prediction. Compare two circuits with batteries of the same voltage, with the same length of wire, made of the same material, but one wire is thicker than the other. Also, for a given material, the resistance is proportional to the length; for example , a long copper wire has higher resistance than an otherwise – identical short copper wire. Also, thicker wires have less resistance and thinner wires have more resistance. A resistance wire is laid along the length of a metre rule and contact with the wire is made through a galvanometer by a slider. 56 mm, 1m of nichrome wire of diameter 0. length from Data Table 1 . The goal is to find the resistance of my copper wire, but I'm not sure what other instruments I need to determine the resistance, or how to setup the circuit to find out the Suppose we wished to measure the resistance of some component located a significant distance away from our ohmmeter. Physics is the study of energy and matter in space and time and how they are related to each other. is, in fact, valid over the ranges of voltage and current in your experiment, you will use the knowledge gained to determine the value of an unknown resistance. . The relationship between the resistance of a material and its length and area of the cross-section is given by the formula \(R=\rho \frac{l}{A}\)’ where \(\rho\) is the specific resistance or resistivity and is a characteristic of the material of the wire. 0346mm (3. I) Resistance of a Wire. and record its diameter in three places using . This "uses up" the energy. This website and its content is subject to our Terms and Conditions. Measure the diameter of the wire and according to the relation (2) determine the electrical resistivity of the wire. Learn more about wire resistance calculations here, and visit Cirris Systems today! Wire Resistance Calculator & Table Thanks A2A. I then took measurements placed the two wire ends marked with an X Voltmeter reading by the Ammeter reading, giving me the resistance. 13 m and the resistivity of copper is p=1. Examples include the element in a toaster, the filament in a light bulb, or even just a length of wire. WHAT TO DO The experiment was the following: I had a power pack connected to an ammeter in series, a nichrome wire, a voltmeter in parallel to the wire in question and a variable resistor to keep the current constant. For example there should be twice as much resistance in a 100cm length of wire compared to a 50cm length of wire. The resistance of stretched wire would be . This proves that the resistance is directly proportional to the length of the wire. When the galvanometer reads zero, the A quick reference guide to cable resistance for the American Wire Gage. 9. Record those values in the Resistance column of the table. Resistance is also inversely proportional to cross-sectional area, denoted as Resistance vs. 3. Design and conduct an experiment to find the relationship between one of the most easily controlled independent variables and the total resistance of a wire (the dependent variable). Classroom Activity: Set up the circuit shown in the diagram with the crocodile clips 0. The resistance of a conductor increases as its temperature increases. 0°C. Such a scenario would be problematic because an ohmmeter measures all resistance in the circuit loop, which includes the resistance of the wires (R wire) connecting the ohmmeter to increase the inductance. This means that resistance is directly proportional to the length of the wire. 90 \Omega at 20. I may also change the length of the wire (e. Apparatus A resistance wire, a voltmeter (0-3) V and an ammeter (0-3) A of appropriate range, a battery (battery eliminator), a rheostat, a metre scale, one way key, connecting wires and a piece of sand paper. Measure or use a given value for the length of a piece of wire. A second piece of wire, made of the same material but thicker than the flrst piece (i. Measuring the Resistivity of a Wire Student Worksheet In this experiment you will be making measurements of voltage and current for a piece of metal wire, together with the physical dimensions of the wire, from which you will calculate the resistivity of the metal. the other variables included in this experiment are temperature, thickness of wire and density of Where R is resistance in ohms, L is the length of the wire in meters, A is the cross sectional area of the wire in square meters, and ρ is the electrical resistivity in ohm-meters. Length Of The Wire Resistance Electrons Atoms atoms and electrons. 2-1) On a graph of V versus I, the slope is equal to R. (optional) Draw another line twice as wide – does the measured resistance and calculated resistivity vary with the width of the line? 4. I was wondering whether anyone could help me with my evaluation of this and suggest some ways that you could improve the experiment? I am in no way trying to cheat, i am just struggling. In experiment of the potentiometer wire AB of length 100 cm has a resistance of 10 Ω. The dependent variable is the resistance of the wire. Experimentally, the dependence upon these properties is a straightforward one for a wide range of conditions, and From my experiment I have found out that as the length of the wire increases, the resistance of the wire increases at a similar rate, therefore, the rate of increase in the length of a wire is directly proportional to the increase in resistance. If you use a 2-wire measurement the calculator assumes you have 0. “The longer the length of the wire, the greater the resistance, thus reducing the current flowing through the wire and vice versa for a smaller length of wire. For this experiment, the independent variable is the temperature of the copper wire. 27 and 0. What will you feel? Would it be warm or cool? Obviously it’ll be warm. As in the preliminary experiment, different wires have different resistances but also the length of the wire will affect its resistance. Founded in 2008, Physics Help Forum is dedicated to free physics help and physics discussions, and our physics community welcomes students, teachers, educators, professors, scientists, and engineers. The Resistance of Wires-Length. How does the Length of the Wire Affect Resistance Experiment. Purpose: In this experiment, a relationship between the resistance of current flow in a wire versus the length of the. Resistance of voltage across the conductor A conductor = current through the conductor Which in short can be written as V R= I Variables- The main factor of the whole experiment is the wire that we use to test the resistance. In this way, you can determine the resistance of the wire when it is not heated by the current. Design your experiment, collect appropriate data, graph it, and by performing regression analysis, find the physical law. Like the resistance to water flow, the total amount of resistance to charge flow within a wire of an electric circuit is affected by some clearly identifiable variables. 5 mm. Find the best essay sample on How the length of wire affects its resistance in our factor of the whole experiment is the wire that we use to test the resistance. In this experiment, you will plot V versus I to measure R for various lengths of wire. 0 x 10 -7 Ω m 2) Calculate the resistance of a rectangle strip of copper length 0. (i) Calculate resistance using R = V/I. The objective for my coursework (as already stated above) is to investigate how changing the length of wire can affect the resistance. 5V cell), a dc ammeter (0 - 1A), a dc voltmeter (0 - 6V), two crocodile clips and 5 leads. Resistance is the measure of how easy it is for current to flow through a wire. Thus there will be morechancesfor the electrons to collide causing higher resistance. Gcse, Physics: What Affects The Resistance Of A Piece Of Wire a,v except for the experiment where i alter the length, i will keep the length of the wire constant throughout the experiments and only change the diameter of the wire. Resistance Strain Gage The underlying concept of the strain gage is very simple. 00m of resistance wire is in the circuit. Here's how the wiring diagram looks: I have a power supply, multimeter, and a copper wire with cross sectional area (A) A= 2. 2. The aim of this experiment will be to investigate how the value of a resistance of a resistance wire changes with it's length. By comparing 2 same circuits with wire thickness as the only different, the voltage or the potential difference will remain the same and only the current will be chan Also, for a given material, the resistance is proportional to the length; for example, a long copper wire has higher resistance than an otherwise-identical short copper wire. Look at these wires:. A current in a wire will generate a magnetic field, and the field depends upon the value and the direction of the current as well as the geometry formed by the wire (straight, loop, . For copper, the conductivity is about 6 x 107 Siemens/meter. Enter the resistance into the calculator. Problem (IIT JEE 2014): During an experiment with a metre bridge, the galvanometer shows a null point when the jockey is pressed at 40. 260 10-1 EXPERIMENT 10 THE WHEATSTONE BRIDGE I. If the wire decreases in length, so does the resistance. Take a look and compare temperatures, sizes, resistance This experiment was a fair test because other factors that could affect the resistance in a wire were kept constant; such as length, material of wire and temperature of wire. Tes Global Ltd is registered in England (Company No 02017289) with its registered office at 26 Red Lion Square London WC1R 4HQ. If aluminum and copper wires of the same length have the same resistance,  In effect, the resistivity represents the resistance across two opposite faces of a d) Calculate the resistance of a copper wire of length 5 m and diameter 2 mm. 000125m and also nichrome 22 wire, with a radius of 0. As the wire cools, resistance decreases and current flow resumes, allowing the lamp to  Ohm's law also states that resistance is a constant independent of both current and voltage. Dependent Variable is the resistance of the wire. . lamp. If you happen to wire a voltmeter into one of your circuits incorrectly, the meter will not be damaged but its very high resistance will essentially prevent current flow, and your circuit will not work. The only difference is the length of wire at which your various observations happen. The wire size is indicated by a gauge number which corresponds to the diameter measurement. Using crocodile clips, I altered the length of the wire, in order to investigate its effect on the resistance. The meter bridge is also referred to as the slide wire bridge. This is determined by measuring the current and resistance of the wire. Does Increasing the Length of a Nichrome Wire Affect its Resistance? Introduction In this experiment I am going to see weather the thickness of wire will affect the resistance of a wire. Description of the Experiment. Another factor is the conductivity of the material we are using. Close to the origin, the graph is almost straight (or you can use the idea of the tangent to the graph). It is determined experimentally using the equation ρ = RA/l (Law of Resistance), where R is the measured resistance of some length of the material, A is its cross-sectional area (which must be uniform), and l is its length. I now need to suggest some of the limitations of the experiment and how these could affect the equation: R/L=-k+p/A, where R is resistance, L is length of the wire (i measured resistance in a few different places of the wire), I can't remember what k is, I think it's just a constant, p is resistivity and A is a cross Use the ohmmeter function of a multimeter to measure the resistance of the 10-m length of wire. To set up the experiment, we used a voltage converter as a power source for a circuit. 7 × 10-8. The electrical property of the material the wire is made of will also be explored. 📚 How Does the Length of a Wire Affect Resistance in a Circuit? - essay example for free Newyorkessays - database with more than 65000 college essays for studying 】 Resistance and length. Dec 1, 2004 To investigate the change in the resistance of a coil of wire as the temperature of rho = resistivity of material (Ohm-meters) L = length of conductor (meters) For copper, which you will be using in this experiment, the thermal  In an experiment to measure the resistivity of nichrome, a student measured the length, resistance and diameter of a sample of nichrome wire of uniform  Ohmic materials have a resistance R that is independent of voltage V and current I. To investigate how changing the length of the wire affects its resistance. Prediction: from my opinion I think that the longer the wore the higher the resistance will be this is because in a long wire there are more ions metal so the current (electrons) have to pass through more ions metals compare to a shorter wire. Voltage wire as a function of current passing through it (currentacross the -voltage characteristic of the wire). ohms/meter) for different thicknesses (gauge, AWG) of nichrome wire. '' You need this number to calculate a wire's resistance. Since R = rl (P). The resistance of a wire is given by the equation: R = ρ x l/A Where R is resistance, ρ (pronounced 'rho') is the resistivity of the wire, l is length and A is its cross-sectional area. Measure the resistance of the ohmmeter and probes by connecting the two probes. First, the total length of the wires will affect the amount of resistance. a real wire) converts some of the electrical energy to a different form. RESISTANCE PER UNIT LENGTH OF THE WIRE by varun govind 1. For example, let’s assume we have a piece of wire (a conductor) that has a length L, a cross-sectional area A and a resistance R as shown. When the wire increases then the resistance will Investigating the Relationship Between the Length and Resistance of a Wire - Investigating the Relationship Between the Length and Resistance of a Wire I am going to investigate to see if the change in the length of a wire will affect the size of a current My prediction ===== I predict that the longer the wire is the higher the resistance This is because there are free moving electrons being I. However, different metals have different values of resistance. I did an experiment to find out the resistance of a metal wire. I think that the wire measuring 100cm had the greatest resistance because of a number of factors: When the wire increased in length, the more current was required, therefore decreasing the current speed and increasing the resistance. The equipment used for experiment was also kept constant, as was the environment for the experiment. The resistance is an effect of resistor which restricts the flow of electrons in a conducting material, that is, resistor restricts the flow of current in a conductor. All wires have a resistance given by the expression A w l R Ω, where l is the length of the wire, A w is the cross sectional area of the wire (thickness), and is the conductivity of the wire material. This shows that resistance is affected by temperature. ) Independent Variable is the length of wire. Results Here is a result table from my main experiment: 20 cm V I are afiected by the second piece of wire being longer than the flrst: the resistivity, the resistance, the voltage drop across the wire, and the current through the wire. In an experiment to measure the resistivity of the material of a wire, a student  In this experiment designed for use with PASCO Capstone software, discover the relationship between the resistance of a wire and its length, diameter, and the  The length of a wire affects its resistance, which determines how much A fuse contains a thin strip of wire, somewhat like the thin steel wire in our experiment. 1m length which can be measured in 10 pieces of ~11cm. Working Setup and Procedure. Measure or use the above table for the diameter of the wire. Return the rheostat to the maximum resistance and repeat procedures for the other wire spools. Resistance in a wire increases as: The length of the wire increases; The thickness of the wire decreases; Preliminary Experiment Resistance; Circuits; Description Observe changes to the equation and wire as you play with the resistivity, length, and area sliders. of the leads plus the resistance of wire between the crocodile clips from the ohmmeter. the resistance to be used in driving current round the circuit will be used in overcoming Take 2 cm length of thin Nichrome wire coil and connect it to a battery and a key as in the image. The length of the wire also makes a difference in the resistance because, if the length of the wire is increased then the resistance will also increase as the, electrons will have a longer distance to travel and so more collisions will occur. This means that longer wires should have more resistance and shorter wires have less resistance. 4. Plot the measured values in a graph of resistance vs. 35 m Room Temperature 32 C (where experiment  When you use resistors in lab, it is good practice to measure their A wire's resistance depends on its conductor material, its length and its cross-sectional area. Short out (touch together) the ohmmeter lead wires to read and record the lead-wire resistance. Active calculator for, dc Resistance of a single round wire made from common conducting materials. 2 m is a good choice). 32 mm and length 5. 1. I have done a preliminary experiment to help me decide the best way to do my  INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND THEORY When electrons travel through wires or other external circuits, they travel in a zigzag pattern that results in a  Aim: the aim for this experiment is to check if the length of a wire affects its resistance. Board with ten 1-meter lengths of a wire mounted between binding posts, power supply, analog For this experiment, we will be studying a material known to obey Ohm's Law. 82 10-8 ? · m. How the Length of a Wire Affects Its Resistance. APPLICATION EXPERIMENT: MEASURING THE RESISTANCE OF A WIRE You have a length of nichrume wire whose known resistivity is x 10 "Qm. This is because if the length of the wire is doubled, the electrons bump into twice as many atoms, so there will be twice as much resistance. Increase the distance between the crocodile clips. THE POTENTIOMETER: Internal Resistance of a Test Cell. In my physics coursework I am going to investigate the effect of the length of a wire on its resistance. Thermal Resistance is dependent on Length, Thermal Conductivity and Surface area. ‪Resistance in a Wire‬ - PhET: Free online physics The purpose of this coursework is to find out how and why resistance varies with the different lengths of the wire and to study weither resistance obeys Ohm’s Law. I think that when there is more length of wire, the resistance will be high in comparison to when there is less wire, the resistance will be much smaller. The electrical resistance of a wire would be expected to be greater for a longer wire, less for a wire of larger cross sectional area, and would be expected to depend upon the material out of which the wire is made (resistivity). To save time, a calculator comes in handy to crunch the numbers. Physics Lab ManualNCERT Solutions Class 12 Physics Sample Papers Aim To find resistance of a given wire using metre bridge and hence determine the resistivity (specific resistance) of its material. Diagram of apparatus for alternative experiment Cirris Systems provides you with a calculator to measure wire resistance. This experiment can be extended to include an investigation of the effect of temperature on resistance, between 0°C and 100°C, using a water bath. PART ONE: Changing the length of the wire In this experiment determine the: Independent variable; Dependent variable; Constant(s) What does the slope of the graph represent? Why was slope x area compared with resistivity? Describe the graph showing the variation of resistance as a function of length. Using formula (3), calculate resistivity of the metal the wire is made. A3 Page 5 Base your answers to questions 27 and 28 on the informa-tion below. In an experiment to measure the resistivity of the material of a wire, a student  How does length affect resistivity Length doesn't affect Resistivity. Resistance – Resistance is an extrinsic property of a device which is represented by the equation where A is the cross-sectional area and l its length. Since the resistance of the uniform wire is directly propor- tional to its length, — Therefore, Rx = Ra ace Thus Then ot potential between points wire. Create your own short circuit experiment with a battery and a length of conducting wire. The aim of this experiment is to help you investigate how the length of a piece of wire affects its resistance. I will also be seeing weather different lengths of wire effect the resistance of the wire. 1 cm A 45-cm-length sample of wire, Your goal is to carry out an experiment that will lead you to understand how temperature affects electrical resistance for the Resistance is directly proportional to the length of the wire, and inversely proportional to the cross sectional area of the wire. Press the key for about 30 seconds. Switch on and adjust the power supply so that the The length of a wire affect resistance because if a long wire is used in an electrical connection. The diameter of the wire will have an affect on the resistance of a wire. In this experiment we will use the law to calculate the resistance of certain conductors, The potential difference across various lengths of resistance wire are  A potentiometer is an instrument for measuring voltage by comparison of an unknown voltage . e. The constants (control variables) are the room temperature, the applied voltage, the diameter of the wire and the length of the wire. Plot a graph of resistance against length, (P). To determine resistance per cm of a given wire by plotting a graph of potential difference versus current. The resistance of a wire varies according to the four factors of the wire; they are the temperature, material, diameter/thickness and length of the wire. A 1. Jonny Nelson explains resistance with a GCSE Physics practical experiment. Specific Resistance of the Material of a Wire using Meter Bridge and Post Office Box Problems from IIT JEE. “The resistance and length of the nichrome wire were found. Fair test: in this experiment we are only changing one factor – the length of the wire, the factors that we are going to keep the same are as follows: 1. This was designed as an intro for an ISA but could be used for this practical in any syllabuss. How to Find Resistance of a Wire Using Ohm's Law. In my natural philosophies coursework I am traveling to look into the consequence of the length of a wire on its opposition. Calculation R is Known Resistance. The experimental resistance of a wire will be determined from the graph of voltage versus current, and the experimental resistivity will be determined from the graphs of resistance versus length and area. This should affect the resistance of the wire in the ways stated above. Resistance wire (the length of which will be used to change the amount of resistance) 5. ANALYSIS: 1. 0m The resistivity of the wire = 5. A two- wire resistance measurement is simple and accurate enough for many a two- wire setup, a lab multimeter can measure the resistance of the leads  Nov 30, 2012 The classic physics experiment. To determine the resistivity of a metal. APPARATUS REQUIRED Battery, key, rheostat, voltmeter, ammeter, resistance wire (unknown resistance), connecting wires, meter scale, sandpaper. There is a slight temperature dependence, but I think it's only about like 10 percent greater, for wire that is red hot, compared to room temperature. I will be investigating the process of how much the resistance changes due to the increase of the length of the wire (constant wire). CHEMANDY ELECTRONICS l is the Length in metres. For the same voltage drop, the current is halved so power is halved. The W1SFR End Fed 35’ Random Wire Antenna with 9:1 UnUn What is a random wire antenna and how does it work? The term “random” infers that you can use any length of wire you want as an antenna, while that basic fact is true, there are some practical considerations. 02Ω per meter so a length of 0. This provided to get the current (in amps). The wire has resistance 1. Resistance Experiment Objective: The aim of this experiment is to help students investigate how the length of a piece of wire affects its resistance. The experiment included a piece of nichrome wire of at least 4 inches in length, electrical wiring, a voltage converter, two multimeters, a thermocouple, fiberglass insulation, and a thin glass tube. 12 V supply, 2 multimeters. 5. 97 [Ω mm 2 m-1] Length Area-1 + 0. There is a direct relationship between current, resistance and voltage. Ohm's Law An Investigation Into the Resistance of a Wire - GCSE Physics . The essence of the experiment is to measure the resistance of a small length of brass-wire to high accuracy using a simple voltage divider and a lock-in amplifier. The moving electrons collide with each other as well as with the positive ions present in the metallic conductor. There are factors which can affect how accurate our expriment is come on four levels. For the kids of my electronics tinker club, I thought it would be a great experiment to see how the resistance of a wire is proportional to its length. In this experiment the use of equation 2 above depends upon the linear relationship between resistance and length of a conducting wire described in equation 1. This makes sense if you consider that there are a number of collisions between the electrons and the ions when electricity flows through 1 metre of a wire. But for a given resistance, a longer copper wire can carry more current without overheating since it has more area to dissipate the heat generated. Theory Calculating the Resistance of a Wire Uniform cross section Length of wire: L Area of cross section: A Resistivity of material: ˆ Current density: J = E ˆ [A=m2] Current: I = JA [A] Voltage: V = EL [V] Resistance: R V I = ˆL A [] Variable cross section Cross-sectional profile: A(x) Resistance of slice: dR = ˆdx A(x) Resistance of wire: R It is to no surprise that the shortest wire will transfer the most heat across itself. By looking at my graph, one will see that as the length of the resistance wire increase, so does the value of resistance. Practical devices are manufactured using a number of techniques and geometries, including: • Winding a metal wire on a cylindrical ceramic core. In this experiment, a simple set-up will be employed to observe the change in heat flow A long wire has resistance proportional to its length, and there are tables listing resistance per unit length (e. Procedure Meter Bridge Experiment using Wheatstone Bridge Principle. Sample Learning Goals Predict how changing each variable will affect the resistance. Meter bridge is based on the principle of wheat stone bridge and it is used to find the resistance of an unknown conductor or to compare two unknown resistance. In this experiment, I predict that if the length of the wire increases, then the resistance will increase, in proportion to its length. How the Length of a Wire Affects Its Resistance In my physics coursework I am going to investigate the effect of the length of a wire on its resistance. Lengths of 20 cm, 40 cm, 60 cm and 80 cm were used. Control Variables are the material, the cross section area and the temperature of the wire. This formula is equivalent to the circumference each loop of the wire makes times the number of such loops in the coil. Finally measuring the radius and length of the unknown resistance we can RESISTANCE: WHEATSTONE BRIDGE METHOD resistance of a wire varies directly with its length and The most accurate method of measuring resistances determining the lengths comprising RI and R2. 1 Aim of experiment We are going to determine the value of an unknown resistance using a meter-bridge and then make furthur accurate measurements using Carey Foster bridge to take into account the specific resistivity (ρ) of the bridge wire. 6. 100cm length of wire (wire B), and 15cm length of wire (wire D). Hypothesis: For a fixed length and thickness of a conducting wire used,  Resistivity is defined as the resistance of a material of unit length and unit cross . 8 [Ω] From that form of the linear fit, we can see the relationship Length and Area have to the Resistance for the nicrome wire. ๏ Find the resistivity of a given wire and from this determine the material . Here's a way to calculate the resistance of a given length of wire: In this experiment you will be able to find the resistivity and conductivity of the materials you  Cite data from your experiment that supports the following relationships: resistance is proportional to the length of wire; resistance is inversely proportional to the  The experiment was done using copper wire of diameter 0. 90m apart (length L on the diagram). Procedure. Come up with three di erent ways (three different experiments, each with its own set of methods) to detériine the resistance of the full length of the nichrome wire. The concentration gradient will be the same in both wires. The experiment proved that the resistance in 10cm of wire is roughly 50% of the resistance of 20 cm of wire, which is in turn roughly 50% of the resistance of 40 cm of wire. Compare two circuits with batteries of the same voltage, but different lengths of the same type of wire (same thickness and material): The corresponding graphs of concentration of delocalised electrons / potential energy will look like this: Prove that an electrical wire's resistance is a function of its length and cross sectional area. So a long wire has more resistance, a thicker wire has less resistance, even if they are both made You can calculate the amount of wire of width W needed to make a coil of radius R and length L by using the formula 2?R x (L/W). The resistance of the given wire . Experiment with Ohm's and Kirchhoff's laws Useful Links. To do this, repeat the above experiment using 10-cm lengths of various gauge copper wire. 5 A flows through the resistance wire then there will be a voltage drop Resistance R depends on the dimensions and material of the conductor. 8 [Ω] is the measurement offset as found through experimentation. With the light bulb, as the power input became higher the heat in the light bulb also rose thus creating greater resistance. You will use this value to find the resistance per unit length of a second 8. Georg Ohm discovered that the resistance of a material is directly proportional to its length and inversely proportional to its cross-sectional area. The wire is nichrome and has a resistivity of 1. Specific Resistance (”ρ”) is a property of any conductive material, a figure used to determine the end-to-end resistance of a conductor given length and area in this formula: R = ρl/A; Specific resistance for materials are given in units of Ω-cmil/ft or Ω-meters (metric). This experiment would then be repeated three times so as to determine any anomalous results. a multi-meter set to 200 meter stick. In the diagram, the slide wire is represented by R4 and R3, and the sliding contact is the point C. In this set of experiments, the differences between resistance and resistivity will be material the object is made of, l is the length of the material, and A is the With the power supply turned off, plug one end of a connecting wire (lead) into the. They learn the definition of resistivity and use it in calculations. Procedure Spread the loveAIM To determine the resistance per cm of a given wire by plotting a graph of potential difference versus current. 2. You will be prompted to collect 5 different current readings using 5 different length samples of wire. These are Four-terminal sensing (4T sensing), 4-wire sensing, or 4-point probes method is an electrical impedance measuring technique that uses separate pairs of current-carrying and voltage-sensing electrodes to make more accurate measurements than the simpler and more usual two-terminal (2T) sensing. A fast and easy way to see the wire resistance changing as the wire gage changes. , the resistance between your multimeter probes and the wire itself might have more resistance than your wire and overshadow it. Suppose that the potential difference between the two   Aug 26, 2018 A. ” I will now perform a test to help to either prove or disprove my prediction. 5x10-6 Ohm-meters at a temperature of 20 Celcius. Aim: To investigate the factors of affecting the resistance of a wire. Length of the wire, in meter A: Cross sectional area of the wire, in m^2 Title: Resistance due to length of metal wire (Theme 5) Aim : To investigate how the length of a metal wire affects the current flowing through it. Thanks :) Key factors: in this experiment I will only change one factor, the length of the wire. Variables that I am going to keep the same. Quick questions 1) Calculate the resistance of a uniform wire of diameter 0. Ohm's Law and resistance The current through a certain wire depends on two things: (a) the voltage (potential difference) between its ends (b) the resistance of the wire The way in which the current changes as the voltage is changed was discovered by Ohm. Does the calculated resistivity vary with the length of the line ? 3. m. The practical diagram is shown in the below figure . If the length of the R1 resistance wire is AB, where A is the (-) end and B is the (+) end, and the "Ian Hickson's Metre Bridge Experiment". IMPORTANT: Special concerns for Ohm’s law experiment 1. • Any sort of change in length or cross-sectional area may bring about a change in the resistance of a wire as we have the relation R= pL /A, where p is the specific resistance. Copper wire of nominal diameter 1. A load (i. Connect the other MMM set on the 50µ(250mV)DCA range across a measured length of the resistance wire (0. Calculations Fig. A certain laboratory experiment requires an aluminum wire of length of 35. If your circuit is not properly connected, it is possible to damage the electronic equipment used in this lab. The resistance and the length of the wire is directly proportional to each other. The wire with the smallest diameter obtained the widest range of resistance as a thin wire has fewer electrons to carry the current than a thick wire therefore the resistance is higher. To study the use of Wheatstone Bridge for precise measurements of resistances. To investigate the factors of affecting the resistance of a wire Essay Sample. Current is the rate of flow of charge through a conductor, and it For the wire I used 34 standard wire gauge wire. You can verify his results with the following experiment. Measure the resistance of the wire with the digital multi-meter configured as an ohmmeter. Make sure that the wire is properly attached to the ruler by crocodile clips. Wire resistance calculator determines the resistance and the conductance of a resistance in Ω,; ρ is the resistivity of material in Ω * m,; L is the length of wire, . Standard wire sizes used in a number of Interface Buses [for data lines] are #22AWG, #24AWG, #26AWG, and 30AWG. Due to an electric field inside the rod (not shown). But, the specific resistance of the wire in all above conditions is same. In this experiment you will be able to find the resistivity and conductivity of the materials you test by using Ohm A resistor is a device with some resistance. As the length of the wire increases, the resistance increases. 1 metre of nichrome wire (28SWG) fixed to a metre rule with tape, a variable voltage dc power supply (0 - 6v) (or 1. You can do the same thing for the 40/80-meter sections, but you can reduce the amount of open-wire line needed by splicing on a single wire for the 80-meter extension. where, and are the length of balance points measured from left reference zero before and after interchanging the resistance introduced (X) and given wire in place of the copper strip (Y) PROCE DURE: The method can be followed in the following steps: (1) Method for Determination of The resistance of a wire is the resistivity times the length divided by the cross-section area. Use resistivity to calculate the resistance of specified configurations of material. Area The next step would be to investigate the relationship between resistance and cross sectional area. With both  Jul 12, 1999 Using the flow analogy, electrical resistance is similar to friction. AIM:-Determination of resistance per unit length of of a given wire by plotting a graph of current verses potential difference. Use Ohm's law (V=IR) and the data from your table to calculate the resistance for every length of wire in the data table. Download the Logger Pro Wheatstone Bridge: Study of Resistance and Resistivity Object: To measure resistance by means of the Slide Wire Wheatstone Bridge; to study the resis-tance of a wire as a function of length and cross sectional area; and to determine the resistiv-ity of two different types of wire. In this experiment I will be using a metal nichrome wire to show the resistance when the length and width is changed. Length 1. In this experiment, I am investigating the corsework, length and diameter to find resistance for a constantan and nichrome wire are shown in the table below: I think that the range of my results was sufficient enough for me to draw a valid conclusion about how the length of the wire affected the resistance. Repeat the activity with a different pencil. Suppose you have a wire of 10 gm. An . To Find Resistance of a Given Wire Using Metre Bridge And Hence Determine The Resistivity (Specific Resistance) of its Material. There are twice as many collisions when electricity 1. Theory. 0°C is 2. 0 m and a resistance of 4. Use Ohm's Law to establish the dependence of resistance on length. Aim: - In this experiment I will be finding out the resistance of a wire in which its length is the variable. Its SI unit is Ω. flows for 2 min in an electroplating experiment, A wire of resistance 4 ohm is stretched to twice its original length. Resistance increases with length because the electrons have further to go, so suffer greater collisions with atoms in the material. A zero error is a reading on a measuring instrument when the  Resistivity is defined as the resistance of a material of unit length and unit cross . Mastering Physics Solutions: Resistance and Wire Length You have been given a long length of wire. My suggestion for the temperature dependent part would be to measure the resistance of the wire with it in boiling water and ice water, for two easy reference points. 00 mm. Only a change in temperature can bring about a change in the specific resistance. Equipment: 1m of constantan wire of diameter 0. The sizes of the symbols in the equation change along with the diagram of a wire. 14*10^-3 m^2, Length L = 0. And if this is going to have an affect on a very delicate experiment, you've gotta take that into account. In fact, if we double the length then the resistance doubles. Remember, the graph should be close to a full page, and labeled fully. Experiments: Part 1: Measuring the resistivity of thicker conducting wire. These resistors generally have a high power A metre bridge is a simple type of potentiometer which may be used in school science laboratories to demonstrate the principle of resistance measurement by potentiometric means. Theory behind my experiment Thickness (cross sectional area of the wire), length, and temperature all have some effect on the amount of resistance created in a wire. Experiment 1 How is the Resistance of a wire change as the length of the wire changes. 0 cm using a standard resistance of $90\; \Omega$, as shown in the figure. It is connected in series with a resistance R and a cell of emf 2 volts and of negligible internal resistance. Calculate . The goal of this lab exercise is to measure electric current through wire and determine the relations between voltage, current, resistance, and the physical properties of the wire. 56 mm. the average. Light bulbs have a filament called tungsten. The resistance of a wire is quoted per unit length, like 0. Experiment 2: Resistance versus Length. For etc. For each wire plot a graph of resistance (y-axis) against length. Measure the length l of the wire between the crocodile clips, with the metre stick or tape. Do not connect the data points with a line. If you have some wire that you don't know the resistance of, you can   Electric current experiments for high schools. AP Physics Resistance and Resistivity Lab . Dec 30, 2016 I will investigate how the length of the wire affects the resistance. When electricity flows through a wire, its electrons must move past the individual atoms of the wire material. Specific Resistance is a measure of the potential electrical resistance of a conductive material. While performing the meter bridge experiment, do NOT slide the jockey continually along the wire. In this exercise, you will measure the resistance of a wire at different length and calculate the average resistivity of the material. Length. Ohm's law describes the fundamental way in which electrical circuits behave. Purpose. Fix the crocodile clip at different points of the metal wire as shown in the diagram. Resistance = 0. Resistance is also inversely proportional to cross-sectional area, denoted as Recall and use quantitatively the proportionality between resistance and length, and the inverse proportionality between resistance and cross-sectional area of a wire. Answer to: A certain laboratory experiment requires an aluminum wire of length of 30. 1: Circuit In this experiment you will use a wire (labelled B) of known resistance per unit length (which should be taken to be 4:00Wm 1) to find the combined resistance of a cell and an ammeter. Explain the difference between resistance and resistivity. Apparatus: Resistance wire, crocodile clip, ammeter, power supply, metre rule Method: 1. 4. Physics Help Forum. Furthermore, the resistance of a wire is directly proportional to the length and inversely proportional to the area, so doubling the length of a wire should increase the resistance by a factor of two. This experiment will be focusing specifically on that last factor – length – and investigate just how much of a role a length of a wire would have on its electrical resistance by using a Use the ohmmeter to measure the resistance of the wire step by step by 10 cm. Resistance of a  Resistance and thickness of wire (cross-sectional area). Now touch the Nichrome wire coil. Aim: the aim for this experiment is to check if the length of a wire affects its resistance . What diameter wire must be used? (The resistivity of aluminum at 20. To calibrate a one meter slide wire potentiometer using a standard cell and then to use this potentiometer to measure the emf of a test cell. YOU WILL NEED. L. Addtional Information. specific and is defined as the resistance of a wire of unit length and unit cross-section area. One end of the galvanometer is connected to terminal D and its other end is connected to a jockey. Metals have low resistance due to their delocalized field of electrons. By inserting the data into the resistance over length graph, a straight line is formed passing through the origin. Electrons moving through the short wire only feel resistance for a short time compared to the longer one. Resistance is typically written with the capital English letter “R”. THEORY It may be shown by experiment that the electrical resistance of a wire is directly proportional to its length and inversely proportional to its cross-sectional area. Experiments have demonstrated that currents in superconducting coils can A current flowing through a wire (or resistor) is like water flowing through a resistance R is directly proportional to its length L, similar to the resistance of a   May 21, 2012 The length, width and thickness of the material are all in centimeters. You have 5 coils of wire, a standard resistance box containing 1-10 ohm precision resistors, a potentiometer, a voltmeter, and a 10 V power supply. Resistance of a Wire Challenge Lab For this challenge lab you will be trying to determine the resistivity of a wire based on a graph of Resistance vs. wire will be investigated. Subtract the resistance of the leads to get the resistance R of the wire. The resistance of the wire increases in proportion to length as predicted in the hypothesis. What is the definition of resistance in physics? What is Resistance of a Conductor The movement of electron gives rise to the flow of current through metals. Consider a uniform wire of cross-sectional area $A$ and length $L$ made of some conducting material. If the length AB is , then the length BC is ( 100-l ). Resistance 1 length of wire electrical resistance (V and I as R=V/I) thickness of wire material of wire Resistance 2 series or parallel electrical resistance value of resistors I-V characteristics Bulb, Resistor, Diode potential difference current component rest of circuit Density object or material mass and volume density = m/v Start by measuring the resistance of the length of wire. Resistance of copper wire as a function of temperature anuar 2015 ˝ 45 Acknowledgments The authors wish to thank the lab assistant F Díaz for his help in the development of this experiment. g. These are Independent Variable is the length of wire. If you make a four-wire measurement the estimate will be more accurate. To avoid possible damage to the meter, the wire must not be connected to the power supply when the ohmmeter is used. If I had a 30 cm wire and a 60 cm wire, the 60 cm wire would have a resistance twice that of the 30 cm wire. We now know that resistance is directly proportional to length, denoted as R α length. R = pl/A, where R is resistance, p is the material's resistance in ohms, l is the length, and A is the cross sectional area in m^2. Resistance vs. Q1 Work out the average resistivity for each metal. Oct 22, 2017 I predict that when I change the length of wire, the resistance will change. As the jockey slides over the wire AC, it shows zero deflection at the balancing point (null point). the second wire has a larger So when changing the length of the conductor does resistance increase or decrease. Draw a graph of wire length versus resistance. The Effect of Temperature on Electrical Resistance Abstract: This project allows students to experimentally discover the temperature dependence of resistance using a copper wire, a standard 1 Ω resistor, and a piece of BSCCO 2223 superconducting tape. The area of electrical wire is measured in a unit called "circular mils. Variables. EXPERIMENT # 2 APPLICATION OF BONDED STRAIN GAGES 1. I predict that as the length of the wire decreases so will the resistance. 1 Ohms per meter or 2 Ohms per 100 meters. There is a constant where the ions increase with the length of the wire, which causes the electron’s speed to decrease in a constant too. Anyone doing the experiment as you did should find the same offset using the same equipment. CONCLUSIONS. For this experiment I will be using a voltmeter, an ammeter, five wires, two crocodile clips, some nichrome and copper wire and a power pack. Does the Diameter of the wire affect the Resistance? Ohms law states that if the cross section of the wire is uniform then the resistance is proportional to the length and inversely proportional to the area of the cross section. Best Answer: First, you did an experiment in physics, not done one. The study on the effect of length on the resistance of a copper wire will be of immense benefit to the physics department because it will help the students gain a better understanding on ohm’s law, the study will also show in an experiment the relationship between the length of copper wire and the resistance to the flow of current. Since the area of cross-section remains same, the no. For water A copper wire has a length of 160 m and a diameter of 1. The first Table shows wire gauge vs resistance per 1000 feet. The longer the wire, the more resistance that there will be. Plot the resistance vs. This property is described in units of Watts per meter Kelvin and at steady state can be calculated via a measurement of thermal resistance. It is worth a few moments to describe the difference between these two quantities. Clean the ends of the connecting wires with the help of sand paper in order to remove any insulating coating on them. g. ) a solenoid (see Figure IV-3), the field generated is along the axis of the solenoid, and reasonably Change the length of the wire within the circuit Take new measurements of length, current and potential difference Repeat for at least seven difference lengths Repeat each length at least twice Calculate the resistance using V=IR" A wire of resistance 4 ohm is stretched to twice its original length. (a). 28 mm and length 1 If l is the length of wire then the resistance per unit length of the wire R l = . Connect various components - resistance, rheostat, battery, key, voltmeter and ammeter as shown in Fig. Nae Peri Circuits-Resistance APlusPhysics: Circuits-Resistance CR. The figures and equations in the previous section ignore the resistance in the lead wires of the strain gauge. Record the length and gauge number of the wire. Using the flying lead, make a contact with the resistance wire so that a length,l = 1. If the length of a wire is doubled and the radius is doubled, what is the new resistance in terms of R?' and find homework help for other Physics Return to List of Experiments and Assignments. length. Wire Resistivity Resistance Calculator, Metal Resistivity Table. In residential wiring, the term short circuit can be defined as any situation in which the current in the established wiring of a circuit instead is diverted into an unexpected pathway that has no resistance. The following is part of a student’s report of an experiment to measure the resistivity of nichrome wire. We did an experiment were we measured the resistance of a wire. Since the resistance per unit length of the slide wire is constant, the length of the two ends of the slide wire, L4 and L3, may be substituted for R4 and R3, respectively. Objective To understand the working principle of bonded strain gauge and to study the stress and strain in a hollow cylindrical shaft under bending, torsion and combined bending and torsion. Does the measured resistance vary with the length of the line? 2. While ignoring the lead resistances may be beneficial to understanding the basics of strain gauge measurements, doing so in practice can be very dangerous. the micrometer screw gauge. Theory The resistance R of a component in a circuit is given by the equation V = IR I will need to do the same experiment with a different wire to prove this. Take one of the pieces of constantan wire . Does this "wire resistance" happens also with ethernet cables? . ๏. Both Thermal Conductivity and Thermal Resistance will affect the amount of heat which passes through a system. Learn about the physics of resistance in a wire. A resistance wire is introduced in gap S and the resistance box is in gap R. Rotate to landscape screen format on a mobile phone or small tablet to use the Mathway widget, a free math problem solver that answers your questions with step-by-step explanations . : increase by 5cm) to ensure that my prediction of whether the length for wire and resistance are in proportion and if my pattern is accurate and reliable, also to what extent they are reliable. OBJECT. To investigate how changing the length of the wire affects its An initial trial was conducted using a length of copper wire to see the relationship between length and resistance. Prediction: from my opinion I think that the longer the wore the higher the  OBJECTIVES. For a wire of length L and cross-sectional area A, made from a material with a resistivity ρ, the resistance is given by: R = ρ L/A (2) On a circuit diagram the symbol for a resistor is: It doesn't. Very Important! In this experiment, the resistance is plotted on the vertical axis and length is plotted on the horizontal axis. For example, consider the two-wire connection of a strain gauge shown in Figure 8a. This experiment  Would a thick copper wire give less resistance than a thin copper wire? Material Copper Length of Wire 0. weight and its length is 10 cm. How the Length of a Wire Affects its Resistance 1397 Words | 6 Pages. Change its resistivity, length, and area to see how they affect the wire’s resistance. The wire with a length of 5 meters is wound around the PVC pipe. Calculate slope of this line V/∆I. S is Unknown Resistance But the electrical resistance between two points can depend on many factors such as the conductors length, its cross-sectional area, the temperature, as well as the actual material from which it is made. 08m, thickness 15 mm and width 0. The flying lead should have a bare conducting end and should be long enough to touch any part of the resistance wire. Discussion: Variation of resistance with length and area (5 minutes) Student experiment: Variation of resistance with length and area (30 minutes) The aim of this investigation is to investigate what effect is given on the length of a wire, when the length of the wire increases. In this experiment, the students were given a spool of Nichrome wire to determine its diameter. The wire that will be used in the experiment is nichrome 30 wire which has a radius of 0. Hows does changing the length of wire affect resistance? Essay Sample. 2 m between the MMM probes corresponds to a resistance of 0. Current is the rate of flow of charge through a conductor, and it is measured in amps using an ammeter. ** ASIDE ** In this lab is it easy to confuse “resistance” with “resistivity”. "We did a physics experiment" is the easy way to write it. E 1. I will be set Recall and use quantitatively the proportionality between resistance and length, and the inverse proportionality between resistance and cross-sectional area of a wire. - Investigating the Resistance of a Wire Planning ----- Aim The aim of my investigation is to investigate how length affects the resistance of a wire. flows for 2 min in an electroplating experiment, length for 10 meters. The gradient of each graph will give you the quantity ρ /A Therefore if you multiply the For this experiment you will need to find out the Cross section area of the wire, the length of the wire and the resistance of the wire, which you can work out by finding the current and voltage of the piece of wire at each length and applying the equation: Resistance = Voltage / Current Find the Resistance for each length of a wire (38 AWG). Procedure: In this episode, students learn how and why the resistance of a wire depends on the wire’s dimensions. The results from this experiment have followed previous energy laws. 7 x 10 -8 Ω m 3) A wire of uniform diameter 0. So if the wire increases in length, so does the resistance. Using the same wire, repeat steps 6 – 7 for a different current probe reading. Thick wires have lower resistance for any given length. Now if you increase the length of this wire to 20 cm its resistance R will be twice than it was at 10 cm. The ohmmeter is used for measuring resistance directly. Does the Resistance of a Wire depend on its Length? The resistance of a wire changes if its length changes. 2 ohms of lead resistance. FreeBookSummary. r = radius of the given wire. Before going on to the experiment, we need to talk about one more instrument. ANALYSIS. 00-meter length of nichrome wire with a cross-sec- Resistance per unit length is “the ratio of specific resistance or resistivity to the area of cross- section of a given conducting material”. Suppose a piece of wire is connected to a battery. Resistance vs Length Of Wire - GCSE Science Required Practical Experiment to show how to measure the resistance of a wire when you change its length. Resistance of wire = 32. ∆ The obtained value is the total resistance of the wire: R R = ∆V/∆I. Use Figure 3 as a guide. Therefore I made a very simple circuit consisting of a single resistance wire with ~1. Your meter bridge experiment readings for both the resistance of the unknown wire (S) and length of the wire (l) are computed as the mean values. Note: if the length of a wire were doubled uniformly, then the resistance is also doubled. 0^{\circ}C. Therefore, verification of the linear relationship between resistance and length of a conducting wire of uniform cross-sectional area must precede measurements with the Wheatstone bridge. It includes model  Jun 17, 2019 These collisions cause resistance and generate heat. It has units of Ohms, [Ω]. Materials: wires on board. Resistance is the force, which opposes the flow of an electric current around a circuit so that energy is required to push the charged particles around the circuit. There are a few factors that affect how much resistance electricity encounters, including the width of the wire, the wire material and the length of the wire. Resistance and thickness of wire (cross-sectional area). Measure the new values of R and l. Resistance is the step of how easy it is for current to flux through a wire. As length decreases so does Thermal Resistance and if the heat flow remained the same (as it should) the temperature difference must also decrease. The resistance Rof a conductor of uniform cross-section , therefore , can becomputed as : 7R=l/A 8. With a switch you can select which standard resistor from the you want to use in the bridge. approximated. If you doubled the length of wire you would expect to find double the resistance. If a current (I) is flowing through a wire, the voltage drop (V) across a certain length of wire with resistance R is given by Ohm's Law: (eq. The value of the resistance will increase as the length of the conductor is made longer and  Oct 4, 2005 Hows does changing the length of wire affect resistance? As in any scientific experiment, there are always variables ( "likely to change or  Thickness and length Electrical wires are made in such way that it can sustain with the respective potential difference and current flow through it. The diameter of the wire was then measured at several points along its length. Using liquid nitrogen as the refrigerant, students will measure electrical resistance over a There is a specific formula you can use to calculate the resistance of copper wire based on its area and length. 15mm was used to establish the practicality of using the material, and to test the likely range of resistances. How does the Type of Material Affect Resistance Experiment. You measure the resistance of the wire, and find it to be Resistance is a measure of how hard it is to move the electrons through the wire. Lesson Summary. The thickness of the wire is directly proportional with the electric resistance. ” The following data was recorded. What is the definition of resistance in physics? August 26, 2018 by Veerendra Leave a Comment. The resistance R and conductance G of a conductor of uniform cross section, therefore, can be computed as Unformatted text preview: Resistance and Resistivity Experiment OC‘ Figure l: A conducting rod of length L and cross sectional area . Apparatus (a) a slide-wire, a galvanometer with protector, a decade-resistance-box (b) an ammeter, a DC power-supply, wire samples, electrical connectors. 46e-5m) Ohm’s law deals with the relationship between voltage, current and resistance. 1 Ω Length of wire = 90. Experiment To Measure The Resistivity Of A Wire. Compare two circuits with batteries of the same voltage, with the same length of wire, made of the same  The electrical resistance, R of this simple conductor is a function of its length, resistance of a conductor (or wire) to be proportionally greater the longer it is. You will measure the resistance of each of the coils with a Wheatstone bridge. And I’m going to keep this VERY simple Get an answer for 'A wire has a resistance R. The classic physics experiment. 80mm The resistivity of copper= 1. It’s clear that the wire is heated because the flow of electric current through the wire. Open-wire line is sold by several QST advertisers, but you can probably obtain it locally from a TV comes with a parts jobber. the electrons move to the right with an average (drift) ve— locity (id. APPARATUS:-A wire of unknown resistance,Battery,Voltmeter,Ammeter,Plug key and Rheostat and metre scale. So if the power dissipated decreases, the wire is using less power. Beginning from 100cm and ending at 10cm. Use an ohmmeter to measure the resistance of the wire. This is because through a shorter length of wire would allow more current to move through at a higher rate than a longer wire. Theoretical background: R =ρ L A Teacher’s Notes: Since we are keeping the same material resistivity and the same cross-sectional area we are expecting a linear relationship. To help you choose the right nichrome or resistance wire, we have included several informational charts. Use the video to determinethe resistance of the wire first using the readings of the ammeter and the voltmeter and then using the geomtery data. 6) I will then repeat the experiment for wire lengths of 20cm, 40cm, 60cm, 80cm,  Sep 4, 2018 This experiment verifies the dependence of wire resistance on its parameters ( length, cross section) and conductor material. Ohm's Law suggests a method for measurement of resistance. Figure 6. use appropriate apparatus and methods to measure current and potential difference to work out the resistance; Aim of the experiment. A The time-base of the oscilloscope is switched off throughout the experiment. 2Ω. 10. ENDMEMO. Experiment. Model the data using a linear fit to determine the relationship between resistance and length of the wire. These impacts slow down the electrons and can eventually stop their flow. I will do so by writing the following coursework ‘How the resistance of a wire varies with length’. Consider this:- The more is the length of the conductor the more is the number of positive ions of the metal. com . When a current of 0. As in the preliminary experiment, different wires have different  Requires practical: Resistance The resistance of the wire is directly proportional to the length. of positive ions that the electrons strikes (due to its thermal velocity & not drift velocity) is much more, hence resistance increases. It includes model results, info on variables , anomalous data and graphs. Students who investigated the effect of length and wire gauge on resistance found the need for at least half a  The cross-sectional area of the wire is known. 00 ? at 20. What The relationship between length and resistance should be directly proportional. The +0. length of wire and resistance experiment

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